By examining the ruins and their relationship to the stars, Some skeptics claim that the alien theory is nonsense, leaving Puma Punku debunked. [48][49], Apparently, this culture dissolved abruptly some time around AD 1000, and researchers can only guess the reasons. Llama skin ropes, ramps, and inclined planes, may have all been used in overland transport. One fact that is undeniable, however, is that the entire region and its people were important in the ancient world of South America. The destruction paints a picture of an angry populace but what might have thrown a stable population into chaos remains a mystery. Pumapunku, also spelled Puma Punku, is the remains of a holy site in the jungles of Bolivia that has attracted much attention as of late. Historic photograph of the architecture on the east side of the Pumapunku platform taken by Max Uhle in 1893 Full size image There are two basic elements of this structure: sandstone slabs that served as the foundation, and andesite blocks that were superstructure. Unable to produce the massive crop yields necessary for their large population, the Tiwanaku apparently scattered into the local mountain ranges, then disappeared shortly thereafter. Posnansky, who worked at the site for decades, estimated that Puma Punku was far older than academics surmised. Theirs was the dominant culture of the Lake Titicaca basin, with an empire covering vast amounts of area in present-day Bolivia, Peru, and Chile. Brian Dunning, the host of the Skeptoid podcast, described the sites row of H-shaped blocks that have approximately 80 faces on them; and all matching each other with great precision. [39][40] Some authors believe, because of certain markings on stones found at Puma Punku, the Gate of the Sun was part of Puma Punku. The amazing stonecutting technology at Puma Punku has hardly gone unnoticed. Though its clear the writing is in the roman alphabet, its meaning remains indecipherable. [] Many T-shaped sockets are indeed found at Tiahuanaco in particular at the site of Puma Punku []. Pieces of Pumapunku that show the complex system by which the bricks were slotted together. that all members of society from infants to the elderly regularly used psychoactive, hallucinogenic plants. And then one day, suddenly, the inhabitants of Pumapunku vanished and a great civilization came toppling down. This layer was deposited during the first of three construction epochs, and dates the initial construction of the Pumapunku to AD 536600 (1510 25 B.P. And it would have been filled with people. Puma Punku - Google My Maps Puma Punku Puma Punku Sign in Open full screen to view more This map was created by a user. At Pumapunku several miniature gates which are perfect replicas of once standing full-size gateways were found. The pagan traditions associated with it have survived through the centuries, with many still A large Viking burial mound found on the island of Karmy off Norways western coast was long thought to be empty. Stone carvings depict Tiwanaku warriors taking just such captives and collecting trophy skulls, supporting the belief that human sacrifice was primarily a punishment meted out to members of opposing tribes. A llama herder, for example, was lower in the social hierarchy than the man who owned the llamas but it was the owners responsibility to provide for the laborer. Top Image: Megalithic cut stones at the Puma Punku archaeological site, Tiwanaku, Bolivia. The technical finesse and precision displayed in these stone blocks is astounding. He points out that the Greek Parthenon was built a thousand years before Puma Punku, and yet nobody invokes aliens as the only explanation for its great beauty and decorative detailing that more than rivals Pumapunkus angles and cuts.. [3], The largest of Pumapunku's stone blocks is 7.81 metres (25.6 feet) long, 5.17 metres (17.0 feet) wide, averages 1.07 metres (3feet 6inches) thick, and is estimated to weigh about 131 tonnes (144 short tons). Puma Punku ruins, Tiahuanaco, Bolivia . Skeptic Brian Dunning, the host of the Skeptoid podcast, described the sites row of H-shaped blocks that have approximately 80 faces on them; and all matching each other with great precision. Wikimedia CommonsPieces of Pumapunku that show the complex system by which the bricks were slotted together. The red sandstone and andesite stones were cut in such a precise way that they fit perfectly into and lock with each other without using mortar. But what they left behind was so magnificent that when the Inca found its ruins 500 years later, they thought Pumapunku must be the spot where the gods had created the world. A Strange Story Untold: A Cryptic Rock in France, Ancient Protection: Using Apotropaic Magic to Ward Off Evil, Amateur Historian Finds Ancient City & Discovery Changes Human Timeline, New Evidence Ties Younger Dryas Impact With Gobekli Tepe. Some evidence suggests that those who suffered this fate may have been not native Tiwanaku but rather outsiders captured in raids or battles. After Akapana, which is believed to be "Pumapunku's twin", Pumapunku was the second most important construction in Tiwanaku. 06The Mystery of Puma Punku 07Aliens and Bigfoot 08The Da Vinci Conspiracy 09The Time Travelers 10Aliens and Dinosaurs. Posnansky was one of the first modern explorers to examine the site but his hypothesis continues to have many supporters. Many of them had similar myths and architectural styles that hint strongly at having common roots, something which has long puzzled archeologists. [54] Vranich notes that generations of amateur, fringe and pseudo-archeologist claimed that the "apparent geometric perfection of Tiwanaku architecture" is a result of extraterrestrial intervention or a lost super civilization instead attributing the ruins to the inhabitants of the Titicaca basin. This theory was first widely expounded by Graham Hancock, and he continues to be its champion: [55] In the 2019 issue of Public Archaeology, Franco D. Rossi of Johns Hopkins University criticizes that ancient alien theorists have called the Aymara "stone age people" who could not have built Pumapunku. While the site of Puma Punku in Western Bolivia remains a crowning achievement of Andean architecture, and it rivals sites found around the world, scientists have very few answers regarding the most basic questions of who, what, when, and why. An Inspirational Courtesans Tale, Was Anne of Cleves Too Ugly for King Henry VIII? Wikimedia CommonsThe ruins of Pumapunku, where the open courtyard was likely to have stood. The second largest stone block found within the complex is 7.90 metres (25.9 feet) long, 2.50 metres (8feet 2inches) wide, and averages 1.86 metres (6feet 1inch) thick. After Akapana, which is believed to be "Pumapunku's twin", Pumapunku was the second most important construction in Tiwanaku. Facts, History, and Speculation. The two most revealing As Greek mythology goes, the universe was once a big soup of nothingness. The debate on Puma Punkus construction date and its builders continues. Ponce Sangins, C. and G. M. Terrazas, 1970, Protzen, J.-P., and S.E.. Nair, 2000, "On Reconstructing Tiwanaku Architecture:". [37][38] There is evidence that like in the case of Akapana sculptures known as Chachapumas once were guarding the entrance to Pumapunku. For example it has been shown that the much-admired carved block known as the "Escritorio del Inca" is an accurate and reduced-scale model of full-scale architecture. The architectural historian Jean-Pierre Protzen from University of California, Berkeley states that in the past it often has been argued that among the buildings at Ollantaytambo the monumental structures (e. g. the Wall of the six monoliths) were the work of the earlier Tiwanaku culture and have been reused by the Incas: An argument persists that the Wall of the six monoliths and the vanished structures from which the blocks have been recycled predate the Incas and were work of the earlier Tiahuanaco culture. Were theonlyPop Archaeology site combining scientific research with out-of-the-box perspectives. It grew and expanded as its people did, reflecting the increasing power of the civilization that built and rebuilt it over hundreds of years. (2018) El misterio de Puma Punku. Amarilo. By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings. The architecture found in the ruins astounds archaeologists and historians and has inspired advanced ancient civilization and ancient alien theories. The Pumapunku complex is an alignment of plazas and ramps centered on the Pumapunku platform mound. Two common proposals involve the use of llama skin ropes, and the use of ramps and inclined planes.[12]. ( Adwo /Adobe Stock). Today, Puma Punku is little more than an assortment of interesting weather-worn stone ruins at first glance, but scholars believe it was once a wonderous site for the Tiwanaku culture. The name means door of the puma, and as far as archaeologists know, Puma Punku was a thriving, ancient town originating somewhere around 500 and 600 C.E. [] The sharp and precise 90 interior angles observed on various decorative motifs most likely were not made with hammerstones. Tags: Andalusia. The foundation platform of Pumapunku supported as many as eight andesite gateways. A close-up of the carvings on the famous Tiwanaku Gate of the Sun. [7], The other stonework and facing of the Pumapunku consists of a mixture of andesite and red sandstone. [1] In Aymara, Puma Punku's name means "Gate of the Puma". A likely scenario involves rapid onset extended drought. They call it "strikingly consistent choice of technical means" ("auffallend bereinstimmenden Wahl der technischen Mittel") which they think is due to "similar patterns in human way of thinking" ("Gesetzmssigkeit der menschlichen Denkentwickelung"). In the south canal of the Pumapunku, the I-shaped cramps were cast in place. Pumapunku, a name that means door of the puma, was a holy site started between 500 and 600 CE. These sites continue to be studied and more are being discovered. February 5, 2023. by Dean Johnston. Im no scientist, but it seems as if humans should have figured it out a really long time ago. Since the radiocarbon date came from the deepest and oldest layer of mound-fill under the andesite and sandstone stonework, the stonework was probably constructed sometime after AD 536600. This is part of the reason why many people have suggested that the ancient inhabitants of Puma Punku had received outside help to create the site. She was known for her intelligence, beauty, and powerful political acumen. This area might be the center of the Andean world, attracting pilgrims from far away to marvel in its beauty. I noticed that, whenever Puma Punku is being discussed, people often ask whether or not the H-Blocks were designed to interconnect. Aneeka of Temmer - Puma Punku, Machu Picchu and more - Extraterrestrial Bases. It is 167.4 metres (549 feet) wide along its northsouth axis and 116.7 metres (383 feet) long along its eastwest axis. [12] One common engineering technique involves cutting the top of the lower stone at a certain angle, and placing another stone on top of it which was cut at the same angle. These sculptures show fearsome traits of predatory animals, they crouch or kneel while clutching a human head in one hand and an axe in the other. According to some research, the human species has been around for up to 200,000 years, and has been pretty smart from the start. We went from horse and carriage to landing on the moon in 70 years. The massive stones are carved into blocks that are unlike anything found anywhere. Get instant access to free videos, helpful articles, and exclusive offers. Researchers at UC Berkeley, USA, created accurate, 3D-printed miniature models of architectural fragments to reconstruct the Puma Punku building in the Tiwanaku site. More alternative suggestions say the stones could have been moved with some sort of large lifting vehicles which mainstream archaeologists do not believe existed in the area at the time. When Did the Americas Actually Become Inhabited? The incredibly precise stones, precision cuts, and polished surfaces have defied explanation for centuries. Why would it take them so damn long to come up with the transition from hunter/gatherers to agriculture/civilization only about 7000 years ago? Pumapunku, a name that means "door of the puma," was a holy site started between 500 and 600 CE. Places like Nan Madol, Gobekli Tepe, the Hawara plain, Puma Punku and others on every continent have been shown to date at over 10,000 years old. Step into the past and uncover the mysteries of Micronesias Nan Madol, one of the most ancient and enigmatic lost cities in the world. [32] Some of these "model stones" like "little Pumapunku" are not isolates stones but, rather, seem to fit in the context of other stones and stone fragments. 11,000-Year-Old Shigir Idol Dated Twice as Old as the Pyramids, John Anthony West: Pioneer of Ancient Civilization Theories Passes Away, Scientists Think Our Ancestors Spoke One Mother Language. [12] The precise cuts suggest the possibility of pre-fabrication and mass production, technologies far in advance of the Tiwanakus Inca successors hundreds of years later. Spanish Conquistadors and others who visited the site during the 16th and 17th centuries described it as a wondrous, though unfinished, building with gateways and windows carved from single blocks., Pumapunku displayed a level of craftsmanship that was largely unparalleled in the pre-Columbian New World, and its often considered the architectural peak of Andean lithic technology prior to the arrival of the Europeans. Archeologists have theorized that this was perhaps a requisite part of spiritual life, meant to transform the experience of the temple into something life-changing and mystical. Archaeological evidence suggests that it once had large courtyards on the eastern and western sides and a wide courtyard at the center. Beltane is an ancient Gaelic festival celebrating the beginning of summer and the renewal of life. From legends handed down to the Incas and Spanish conquerors, and from whats left of Tiwanaku monuments, archeologists have pieced together a compelling picture of Tiwanaku religious beliefs. The ancient site known as Puma Punku on the Altiplano of Bolivia and just south of Lake Titicaca is part of the Tiwanaku complex. Inactive since the 1980s. Any guesses? No matter how fine the hammerstone's point, it could never produce the crisp right interior angles seen on Tiahuanaco stonework. [51] The archeologist Jeb J. The dead were often mummified, and occasionally bones show evidence of heavy cuts and scratch marks suggesting defleshing with sharp tools may have been a regular part of Tiwanaku burial practices. Have you ever wondered what it would be like to live in ancient Greece? Posnansky, who worked at the site for decades, estimated that Puma Punku was far older than academics surmised. (Adwo /Adobe Stock). 'In Bolivia, Great Excavations; Tiwanaku Digs Unearthing New History of the New World', Lechtman, H.N., 1998, 'Architectural cramps at Tiwanaku: copper-arsenic-nickel bronze.' The lake is the origin point of the great bearded god - Viracocha, who was said to have emerged from the waters on to the Island of the Sun, created a team of stone or mud giants and instructed them to build all the megalithic sites and carve statues of their great god along the Path of Viracocha, that included . A link to reset your password has been sent to you. Support for the argument is found in the step motif carved on the fourth monolith and the T-shape sockets cut into several blocks, both believed to be hallmarks of Tiahuanaco-style architecture. In assembling the walls of Pumapunku, each stone interlocked with the surrounding stones. On the northeast and southeast corners of the Pumapunku, it has 20-metre (66-foot) wide projections extending 27.6 metres (91 feet) north and south from the rectangular mound. The Puma Punku measures roughly 548 feet long on its north-south axis and 381 feet wide on its east-west axis. To get there, visitors have to travel to Brittany and then take a path from a hard-to-access hamlet called Illien Ar Guen. Available at:, Dunning, B. It is known by archeological evidence that civilizations rise and fall for many reasons. I am sure you are familiar with his legend which states that he was born in a manger surrounded by shepherds, What's your favourite Fairy Tales (and their possible origins), about Fathoming the Ruins of Yanmen Shan Mountain and the Biggest Cut Rocks in the World, about Ancient Egyptian Weapons: The Evolution of Warfare, about The Cataclysm of Ra: Saving Humankind from Hathor Using Beer, about Helicopter Hieroglyphs? Aimee Lamoureux is a writer based in New York City. Is it a stretch to suggest that a form of cement could have been formed and finished in the making of these stones? The ruins of Puma Punku are one of four structures in the ancient city of Tiahuanaco. Robinson, Eugene (1990). All we have to go on are the magnificent stones that remain. Considered to be an architectural wonder of its time (AD 500-950), Puma Punku has been ransacked over the last 500 years to a point where none of the remaining 150 blocks that . Puma Punku is a Pre-Columbian archaeological site in Bolivia that is steeped in wonder and mystery. (2018) Reconstructing ancient architecture at Tiwanaku, Bolivia: the potential and promise of 3D printing. Heritage Science . Stone portraits Tiwanaku, Bolivia. jeep3r. At the west entrance of Pumapunku Totora-reed stones were found. Built over 800 years ago from massive basalt rocks, this lost city is nestled in the dense jungle and mangroves. 33 Hells Angels Photos That Put You Inside The Notorious Biker Gang, Bollywood Star Sentenced To Prison For 20-Year-Old Poaching, What Stephen Hawking Thinks Threatens Humankind The Most, 27 Raw Images Of When Punk Ruled New York, Join The All That's Interesting Weekly Dispatch. [] The only question here is why stonesmasons from Lake Titicaca should have remembered anything Tiahaunacoid when for several centuries nothing like it had been built. We use cookies and similar technologies to run this website and help us make recommendations for you. She is the Chief Editor of Ancient Origins Magazine. Puma Punku in Bolivia is one of the world's most mysterious ancient sites. [4][12], Notable features at Pumapunku are I-shaped architectural cramps, composed of a unique copper-arsenic-nickel bronze alloy. On the more conventional side, its suggested that the stonemasons were just very capable with the tools available to them and there was a lot of manual labor involved in transporting and working the stones. Puma Punku Stone Blocks Bolivia. But the Inca were quick to realize the sacred nature of the site and soon added their own mythical story to it. Even with modern-day technology and information, these structures defy logic and confound those who seek to solve the mysteries that lie within them. Who Were the Ancient Race of Red Haired Giants? Then much later, the black-headed people came across the Bering and claimed the ruins and all the non-ferrous metals. In the past, the Tiwanaku culture had made the area an agricultural and trading center which may have supported up to 400,000 people during its heyday. People who disagree with this later date often argue that the radiocarbon dating results provided by anthropology professor William H. Isbell of the University of Illinois are inaccurate and provide an unreliable date range. (2013) Puma Punku, el lugar de los bloques imposibles. Arquehistoria. This has led some to suggest that the most plausible explanation is violent internal social upheaval, a kind of implosion that tore Tiwanaku society apart. Tiwanaku engineers were also adept at developing a civic infrastructure at this complex, constructing functional irrigation systems, hydraulic mechanisms, and waterproof sewage lines. Until recently, due to the condition and placement of so many stones laid strewn across the landscape, there was really no way of seeing what Puma Punku may have looked like during its peak. If you look at them from above, they're simply squarish enclosures scattered about the area. Time has not been kind to the site. Their creator god is believed to be depicted in the famous Sun Gate , which many scholars think was once located at Puma Punku and only later moved to Kalassaya. These structures transformed the local landscape; Pumapunku was integrated with Illimani mountain. The second is simpler: we just weren't looking for them. [8] Many of the joints are so precise, a razor blade cannot fit between the stones. (Video), When Faith and Power Clash: How Christianity Divided the Roman Empire (Video), Medieval Maverick: Roger Bacon's Quest for Knowledge and Truth, The Life and Times of Mansa Musa: The Richest Man in History, Fathoming the Ruins of Yanmen Shan Mountain and the Biggest Cut Rocks in the World, Sacred Treasure Hunt: In Pursuit of the Elusive Ark of the Covenant (Video). Precisely cut H-shaped blocks at Puma Punku. Additionally to these miniature gateways, likely, at least five gateways (and several blind miniature gateways) were once (or were intended to be) integrated into the Pumapunku monumental complex. Using historical data, 3-D-printed pieces, and architectural software, Berkeley archaeologist Alexei Vranichs virtual reconstruction of Puma Punku provides a glimpse into the structures original appearance. Although similar, the blocks do not have the same dimensions. Tiwanaku is significant in Inca traditions, the place where it was once believed the world was created. One of the most interesting is Puma Punku. We just had to set aside centuries of archeological dogma ("humans became civilized 7000 years ago") and start looking! Beneath the kilometer of arid earth that separates Pumapunku from the nearby Kalasasaya monument, archeologists and surveyors have discovered hundreds of buried homes and the evidence of vast irrigation systems that would have turned the surrounding desert green. Until recently, conventional wisdom suggested that the desertion was prompted by a severe, prolonged drought that ravaged the crops and made sustaining a large urban population impossible. Next, check out some of the worlds oldest structures. Then, two things happened: either Chaos or Gaia created the universe as we know it, or Ouranos and Tethys gave birth to the first beings. The architectural historians Jean-Pierre and Stella Nair who conducted the first professional field study on the stones of Tiwanaku/Pumapunku conclude: [] to obtain the smooth finishes, the perfectly planar faces and exact interior and exterior right angles on the finely dressed stones, they resorted to techniques unknown to the Incas and to us at this time. Puma punku was a terraced earthen mound originally faced with megalithic blocks, each weighing several tens of tons. Visual History Online-Nachschlagewerk fr die historische Bildforschung: "Palaces and Politics in the Andean Middle Horizon", "The secrets of Tiwanaku, revealed by a drone", Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, "Drugs Found in Hair of Ancient Andean Mummies", "Reckoning with the Popular Uptake of Alien Archaeology", Interactive Archaeological Investigation at Pumapunku Temple, "Skeptoid #202: The Non-Mystery of Puma Punku",, an alignment of plazas and ramps centered on a man-made terraced platform mound with a sunken court and monumental complex on top, sifted and layered soils (mound), andesite (superstructure), sandstone (foundation and internal channels), ternary CuAsNi bronze alloy (cramps), mortar of lime and sand with ground-up malachite (turquoise green plaster floor), clay (red floor), This page was last edited on 29 April 2023, at 07:51. Andalusia is home to excellent breeds, and has a host of stud farms for Arabian, Anglo-Arabian, Hispano-Arabian, English horses. In the ancient city of Abydos, within the famed temple of Seti I, strange hieroglyphs were discovered on the ceiling. These stones, he wrote, suggest prefabrication not found at the other Tiwanaku sites. Here we are, a century-and-a-half later, and irrepressible rumors continue to grow that Puma Punkus massively heavy stone block structures were cut so precisely that highly advanced, ancient technology seems to be the only explanation for their craftsmanship. After reading the Gita, written thousands of years ago in ancient India, I am quite convinced humanity has risen and fallen multiple times in the past. Tiwanaku & Puma Punku - Private Service. [33] According to Protzen and Nair the fact that many of these "model stones" were executed in multiple exemplars bespeaks mass production. [56], "nested square" symbol inside one "H-block". But some researchers have contested this, pointing out that new climate research suggests the regions drought didnt begin until decades after the start of the Tiwanaku civilizations collapse. Mounting evidence from around the Earth indicates that humans made the leap to real civilization MUCH further back in antiquity than we originally thought and may have established a sea-faring, organized-trade civilization that had outposts over much of the world all this about 10,000 to 15,000 years ago. times. Thousands of websites and references which refer to pseudoscientific theories of alien and Atlantis enthusiasts exist. AtAncient Origins, we believe that one of the most important fields of knowledge we can pursue as human beings is our beginnings. Legends state that the first inhabitants had supernatural powers and were able to move stones from the ground and carry them through the air using sounds. There are reasons we didn't find evidence of the earlier lost civilization until recently. The person able to do so is promised a handsome 2,000 euros (or $2,240) for the feat. The general belief is that droughts and possibly civil unrest caused the inhabitants to seek refuge in the surrounding hills. Pumapunku, also spelled Puma Punku, is the remains of a holy site in the jungles of Bolivia that has attracted much attention as of late. If these statues are former rulers of the region, how do the co-called mainstream archaeologists explain the statues and with full heavy beards? Since the radiocarbon date came In addition, some of the stones were held together with copper fasteners, some of which were cold hammered into shape, and others that were poured into place molten.. Then, take a look at the city of giants found in Ethiopia. [53] The buildings at Chiripa (which are similar to buildings of Pumapunku) were identified as "storage bins" because impressions of baskets and remains of food were found. Puma Punku Bolivia, translated as "Gate of the Puma" in the Quechua language, is a 6 th century archeological site with numerous ancient temples and forms part of Tiahuanaco (an ancient civic and sacred site with pyramids, gateways and monuments), in western Bolivia. Our open community is dedicated to digging into the origins of our species on planet earth, and question wherever the discoveries might take us. The geophysical data collected from these surveys and excavations indicate the presence of numerous man-made structures in the area between the Pumapunku and Kalasasaya complexes.
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